Paradione - General Information
Paradione is an anticonvulsant in the oxazolidinedione class. It is associated with fetal trimethadione syndrome, which is also known as paramethadione syndrome.
Pharmacology of Paradione
Paradione is an oxazolidinedione anticonvulsant similar to trimethadione that acts on the central nervous system (CNS) to reduce the number of absence seizures (often seen in epileptics). Absence seizures involve an interruption to consciousness where the person experiencing the seizure seems to become vacant and unresponsive for a short period of time (usually up to 30 seconds). Paradione acts on thalamic neurons in the thalamic reticular nucleus (which studies have shown to be associated with absence seizures, von Krosigk et al., 1993).
Paradione for patients
Dione anticonvulsants are used to control certain types of seizures in the treatment of epilepsy. They act on the central nervous system (CNS) to reduce the number of seizures. These medicines cannot cure epilepsy and will only work to control seizures for as long as you continue to take them.
Not compatible with CNS depressants or trycyclic antidepressants
Contraindicated for patients with renal dysfunction, liver diseases, porphyria and diseases of the eye or optic nerve
Additional information about Paradione
Paradione Indication: Used for the control of absence (petit mal) seizures that are refractory to treatment with other medications.
Mechanism Of Action: Dione anticonvulsants such as paramethadione reduce T-type calcium currents in thalamic neurons (including thalamic relay neurons). This inhibits corticothalamic transmission and raises the threshold for repetitive activity in the thalamus. This results in a dampening of the abnormal thalamocortical rhythmicity proposed to underlie the 3-Hz spike-and-wave discharge seen on electroencephalogram (EEG) during absence seizures.
Drug Interactions: Not Available
Food Interactions: Not Available
Generic Name: Paramethadione
Synonyms: Not Available
Drug Category: Anticonvulsants
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Absorption: Rapid via the digestive tract.
Toxicity (Overdose): Symptoms of overdose include clumsiness or unsteadiness, coma, severe dizziness, severe drowsiness, severe nausea, and problems with vision.
Protein Binding: Not significant
Biotransformation: Primarily hepatic (mainly via cytochrome P450 isozyme 2C9), paramethadione is completely demethylated to 5-ethyl-5-methyl-2,4-oxazolidinedione, the active metabolite.
Half Life: 12 to 24 hours (however the half-life for the active metabolite is not known)
Dosage Forms of Paradione: Not Available
Chemical IUPAC Name: 5-ethyl-3,5-dimethyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2,4-dione
Chemical Formula: C7H11NO3
Paramethadione on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paramethadione
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals