Pemal - General Information
An anticonvulsant especially useful in the treatment of absence seizures unaccompanied by other types of seizures. [PubChem]
Pharmacology of Pemal
Used in the treatment of epilepsy. Pemal suppresses the paroxysmal three cycle per second spike and wave activity associated with lapses of consciousness which is common in absence (petit mal) seizures. The frequency of epileptiform attacks is reduced, apparently by depression of the motor cortex and elevation of the threshold of the central nervous system to convulsive stimuli.
Pemal for patients
Ethosuximide may impair the mental and/or physical abilities required for the performance of potentially hazardous tasks, such as driving a motor vehicle or other such activity requiring alertness; therefore, the patient should be cautioned accordingly.
Patients taking ethosuximide should be advised of the importance of adhering strictly to the prescribed dosage regimen.
Patients should be instructed to promptly contact their physician if they develop signs and/or symptoms (eg, sore throat, fever), suggesting an infection.
Since Zarontin (ethosuximide) may interact with concurrently administered antiepileptic drugs, periodic serum level determinations of these drugs may be necessary (eg, ethosuximide may elevate phenytoin serum levels and valproic acid has been reported to both increase and decrease ethosuximide levels).
Ethosuximide should not be used in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to succinimides.
Additional information about Pemal
Pemal Indication: For the treatment of petit mal epilepsy.
Mechanism Of Action: Binds to T-type voltage sensitive calcium channels. Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1G gives rise to T-type calcium currents. T-type calcium channels belong to the "low-voltage activated (LVA)" group and are strongly blocked by mibefradil. A particularity of this type of channels is an opening at quite negative potentials and a voltage-dependent inactivation. T-type channels serve pacemaking functions in both central neurons and cardiac nodal cells and support calcium signaling in secretory cells and vascular smooth muscle. They may also be involved in the modulation of firing patterns of neurons which is important for information processing as well as in cell growth processes.
Drug Interactions: Not Available
Food Interactions: Take with food.
Generic Name: Ethosuximide
Synonyms: Ethosuccimide; Ethosuccinimide; Ethosuxide; Etosuximida; Aethosuximide
Drug Category: Anticonvulsants; Succinimides
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Other Brand Names containing Ethosuximide: Asamid; Atysmal; Capitus; Emeside; Epileo Petit Mal; Ethymal; Etomal; Mesentol; Pemal; Pemalin; Pentinimid; Peptinimid; Petinimid; Petnidan; Piknolepsin; Pyknolepsinum; Ronton; Simatin; Succimal; Succimitin; Suxilep; Suximal; Suxin; Suxinutin; Thetamid; Thilopemal; Zaraondan; Zarodan; Zarondan; Zarontin; Zartalin;
Absorption: Bioavailability following oral administration is 93%.
Toxicity (Overdose): Acute overdoses may produce nausea, vomiting, and CNS depression including coma with respiratory depression.
Protein Binding: Not Available
Biotransformation: Hepatic, via CYP3A4 and CYP2E1.
Half Life: 53 hours
Dosage Forms of Pemal: Capsule Oral
Chemical IUPAC Name: 3-ethyl-3-methylpyrrolidine-2,5-dione
Chemical Formula: C7H11NO2
Ethosuximide on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethosuximide
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals