Pentacef - General Information
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from cephaloridine and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients. [PubChem]
Pharmacology of Pentacef
Pentacef is a semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, beta-lactam antibiotic for parenteral administration. Pentacef is bactericidal in action exerting its effect by inhibition of enzymes responsible for cell-wall synthesis. A wide range of gram-negative organisms is susceptible to ceftazidime in vitro, including strains resistant to gentamicin and other aminoglycosides. In addition, ceftazidime has been shown to be active against gram-positive organisms. It is highly stable to most clinically important beta-lactamases, plasmid or chromosomal, which are produced by both gram-negative and gram-positive organisms and, consequently, is active against many strains resistant to ampicillin and other cephalosporins. Pentacef has activity against the gram-negative organisms Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae. Its activity against Pseudomonas is a distinguishing feature of ceftazidime among the cephalosporins.
Pentacef for patients
Nephrotoxicity has been reported following concomitant administration of cephalosporins with aminoglycoside antibiotics or potent diuretics such as furosemide. Renal function should be carefully monitored, especially if higher dosages of the aminoglycosides are to be administered or if therapy is prolonged, because of the potential nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity of aminoglycosidic antibiotics. Nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity were not noted when ceftazidime was given alone in clinical trials.
Chloramphenicol has been shown to be antagonistic to beta-lactam antibiotics, including ceftazidime, based on in vitro studies and time kill curves with enteric gram-negative bacilli. Due to the possibility of antagonism in vivo, particularly when bactericidal activity is desired, this drug combination should be avoided.
Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions
The administration of ceftazidime may result in a false-positive reaction for glucose in the urine when using CLINITEST® tablets, Benedict's solution, or Fehling's solution. It is recommended that glucose tests based on enzymatic glucose oxidase reactions (such as CLINISTIX® or TES-TAPE®) be used.
CEPTAZ is contraindicated in patients who have shown hypersensitivity to ceftazidime or the cephalosporin group of antibiotics.
Additional information about Pentacef
Pentacef Indication: For the treatment of patients with infections caused by susceptible strains of organisms in the following diseases: lower respiratory tract infections,skin and skin structure infections, urinary tract infections, bacterial septicemia, bone and joint infections, gynecologic infections, intra abdominal infections (including peritonitis), and central nervous system infections (including meningitis).
Mechanism Of Action: The bactericidal activity of ceftazidime results from the inhibition of cell wall synthesis via affinity for penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs).
Drug Interactions: Amikacin Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Gentamicin Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Kanamycin Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Neomycin Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Netilmicin Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Streptomycin Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Tobramycin Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Food Interactions: Not Available
Generic Name: Ceftazidime
Synonyms: Not Available
Drug Category: Anti-Bacterial Agents
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Absorption: The absorption of ceftazidime is directly proportional to the size of the dose.
Toxicity (Overdose): Ceftazidime overdosage has occurred in patients with renal failure. Reactions have included seizure activity, encephalopathy, asterixis, neuromuscular excitability, and coma.
Protein Binding: < 10%
Biotransformation: Not Available
Half Life: Half-life, following IV administration, is approximately 1.9-hours. Since ceftazidime is eliminated almost solely by the kidneys, its serum half-life is significantly prolonged in patients with impaired renal function.
Dosage Forms of Pentacef: Powder, for solution Intramuscular
Powder, for solution Intravenous
Chemical IUPAC Name: (6R,7R)-7-[[(2Z)-2-(2-amino-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)-2-(1-hydroxy-2-methyl-1-oxopropan-2-yl)oxyiminoacetyl]amino]-8-oxo-3-(pyridin-1-ium-1-ylmethyl)-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylate
Chemical Formula: C22H22N6O7S2
Ceftazidime on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceftazidime
Organisms Affected: Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria