Polycillin - General Information
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic. [PubChem]
Pharmacology of Polycillin
Polycillin is a penicillin beta-lactam antibiotic used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually gram-positive, organisms. The name "penicillin" can either refer to several variants of penicillin available, or to the group of antibiotics derived from the penicillins. Polycillin has in vitro activity against gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The bactericidal activity of Polycillin results from the inhibition of cell wall synthesis and is mediated through Polycillin binding to penicillin binding proteins (PBPs). Polycillin is stable against hydrolysis by a variety of beta-lactamases, including penicillinases, and cephalosporinases and extended spectrum beta-lactamases.
Polycillin for patients
1. The patient should inform the physician of any history of sensitivity to allergens, including previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins and cephalosporins.
2. The patient should discontinue ampicillin and contact the physician immediately if any side effect occurs.
3. Ampicillin should be taken with a full glass (8 oz) of water, one-half hour before or two hours after meals.
4. Diabetic patients should consult with the physician before changing diet or dosage of diabetes medication.
When administered concurrently, the following drugs may interact with ampicillin.
Allopurinol: Increased possibility of skin rash, particularly in hyperuricemic patients may occur.
Bacteriostatic Antibiotics: Chloramphenicol, erythromycins, sulfonamides, or tetracyclines may interfere with the bactericidal effect of penicillins. This has been demonstrated in view, however, the clinical significance of this interaction is not well documented.
Oral Contraceptives: May be less effective and increased breakthrough bleeding may occur.
Probenecid: May decrease renal tubular secretion of ampicillin resulting in increased blood levels and/or ampicillin toxicity.
Drug/Laboratory Test Interaction
After treatment with ampicillin, a false-positive reaction for glucose in the urine may occur with copper sulfate tests (Benedict's solution, Fehling's solution, or Clinitest tablets) but not with enzyme based tests such as Clinistix and Glucose Enzymatic Test Strip USP.
A history of a previous hypersensitivity reaction to any of the penicillins is a contraindication. Ampicillin is also contraindicated in infections caused by penicillinase-producing organisms.
Additional information about Polycillin
Polycillin Indication: For treatment of infection (Respiratory, GI, UTI and meningitis) due to E. coli, P. mirabilis, enterococci, Shigella, S. typhosa and other Salmonella, nonpenicillinase-producing N. gononhoeae, H. influenzae, staphylococci, streptococci including streptoc
Mechanism Of Action: By binding to specific penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located inside the bacterial cell wall, Polycillin inhibits the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysins; it is possible that Polycillin interferes with an autolysin inhibitor.
Drug Interactions: Methotrexate The penicillin increases the effect and toxicity of methotrexate
Anisindione The IV penicillin increases the anticoagulant effect
Atenolol Polycillin decreases bioavailability of atenolol
Demeclocycline Possible antagonism of action
Dicumarol The IV penicillin increases the anticoagulant effect
Doxycycline Possible antagonism of action
Ethinyl Estradiol This anti-infectious agent could decrease the effect of the oral contraceptive
Methacycline Possible antagonism of action
Minocycline Possible antagonism of action
Acenocoumarol The IV penicillin increases the anticoagulant effect
Oxytetracycline Possible antagonism of action
Rolitetracycline Possible antagonism of action
Tetracycline Possible antagonism of action
Warfarin The IV penicillin increases the anticoagulant effect
Mestranol This anti-infectious agent could decrease the effect of the oral contraceptive
Food Interactions: Take on an empty stomach.
Generic Name: Ampicillin
Synonyms: Ampicilline [Inn-French]; Ampicillinum [Inn-Latin]; Ampicilline; Ampicillina [Dcit]; Ampicillin [Usan-Ban-Inn-Jan]; Ampicillin Trihydrate; Ampicillin Sodium; Ampicillin Base; Ampicillin Anhydrous; Ampicillin Anhydrate; Ampicillin Acid; Ampicilina [Inn-Spanish]; Anhydrous Ampicillin; Bayer 5427; D-Ampicillin; Aminobenzylpenicillin
Drug Category: Anti-Bacterial Agents; Penicillins
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Other Brand Names containing Ampicillin: AB-PC; Ab-Pc Sol; Acillin; Adobacillin; Alpen; Amblosin; Amcill; Amfipen; Amfipen V; Amipenix S; Ampen; Ampi; Ampi-Bol; Ampi-Co; Ampi-Tab; Ampichel; Ampicil; Ampicillin A; Ampicin; Ampifarm; Ampikel; Ampimed; Ampipenin; Ampipenin, Nt3; Ampiscel; Ampisyn; Ampivax; Ampivet; Amplacilina; Amplin; Amplipenyl; Amplisom; Amplital; Ampy-Penyl; Austrapen; BRL; Binotal; Bonapicillin; Britacil; Campicillin; Cimex; Copharcilin; D-Cillin; Delcillin; Deripen; Divercillin; Doktacillin; Duphacillin; Geocillin; Grampenil; Guicitrina; Guicitrine; Lifeampil; Morepen; Norobrittin; Novo-Ampicillin; Nuvapen; Olin Kid; Omnipen; Omnipen-N; Orbicilina; Pen A; Pen Ampil; Pen a Oral; Penbristol; Penbritin; Penbritin Paediatric; Penbritin Syrup; Penbritin-S; Penbrock; Penicline; Penimic; Pensyn; Pentrex; Pentrexl; Pentrexyl; Pfizerpen A; Pfizerpen-A; Polycillin; Polycillin-N; Ponecil; Princillin; Principen; Principen '125'; Principen '250'; Principen '500'; Qidamp; Racenacillin; Ro-Ampen; Rosampline; Roscillin; Semicillin; Semicillin R; Servicillin; Sk-Ampicillin; Spectrobid; Sumipanto; Supen; Synpenin; Texcillin; Tokiocillin; Tolomol; Totacillin; Totacillin-N; Totalciclina; Totapen; Trifacilina; Ultrabion; Ultrabron; Vampen; Viccillin; Viccillin S; Wypicil;
Absorption: Not Available
Toxicity (Overdose): Not Available
Protein Binding: Not Available
Biotransformation: Not Available
Half Life: Not Available
Dosage Forms of Polycillin: Powder, for solution Intramuscular
Powder, for solution Oral
Powder, for solution Intravenous
Chemical IUPAC Name: (2S,5R,6R)-6-[[(2R)-2-amino-2-phenylacetyl]amino]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid
Chemical Formula: C16H19N3O4S
Ampicillin on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ampicillin
Organisms Affected: Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria