Echoencephalography (EhoEG) - a method of non-invasive diagnostics based on the reflection of ultrasound from the border of intracranial structures and environments with different acoustic density (soft tissues of the head, bones of the skull, meninges, brain matter, cerebrospinal fluid, blood). Reflects the structure may be abnormal formation (foci of crushing, foreign bodies, abscesses, cysts, hematomas, and others.).
The most important indicator in echoencephalography (EhoEG) - position of midline structures of the brain (M-echo). Possible differences in the rate of the volume of the cerebral hemispheres allow physiological offset M-echo to 2 mm.
Echoencephalography (EhoEG) is used by physicians in the diagnosis of the following diseases:
- Ischemic stroke, cerebral ischemia
- Vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) with vertigo symptom
- Somatoform disorder (autonomic dysfunction)
- Transient ischemic attack (TIA)
- Dizziness (vertigo)
- Intracranial pressure
- Concussion and brain contusion
- Neck injuries, cervical-cranial syndrome
- Parkinson's disease
- Hypophyseal adenoma
The displacement midline structures during echoencephalography (EhoEG) does not exceed the physiological abnormalities in brain concussion. When focal brain injury, due to swelling of the brain tissue, the M-displacement of the echo signal in echoencephalography (EhoEG) towards intact hemisphere may be 2-5 mm with a gradual increase to the 4th day and tends to regress during 1-3 weeks. In the area of injury to echoencephalography (EhoEG) can be logged pikopodobnye signals caused by reflection of ultrasound from small focal hemorrhages.
Echoencephalography (EhoEG) is particular importance in the compression of the brain. Possible early diagnosis of supratentorial hematomas shell in which the displacement of midline structures of the brain in the direction of healthy hemisphere appears already in the first hours after TBI, and tends to increase up to 6-15 mm. Often when echoencephalography (EhoEG) observed a direct reflection of the ultrasonic signals from the border between the hematoma and brain matter or membranes surrounding the brain. When you try to echolocation side location hematoma reflected from its boundary signal enters the initial "dead zone" and therefore echolocation hematoma is possible only on the opposite side.
Hematoma echo in echoencephalography (EhoEG) is a non-pulsating high-amplitude signal, registering between pulsating low-amplitude signals from the walls of the lateral ventricles and the final set of (reflection from the sensor located opposite wall of the skull). Please note that in case of damage and swelling of the soft tissues of the skull echoencephalography (EhoEG) shows a significant difference in the distance to the end of complexes, which often leads to errors in the interpretation of research results. In these cases, should focus not on the initial and the final set of signals from the inner surface of the bone to the M-echo with subsequent determination of the value of its displacement by the known formulas.
At bilateral hemispheric hematomas, with hematoma of the posterior fossa, as well as localization of basal lobnopolyusnoy and volume of hemorrhage diagnostic value method echoencephalography (EhoEG) is reduced, as is losing its essential definition of the displacement of median structures of the brain. In these cases, the diagnostic capabilities of the multi-dimensional echoencephalography (EhoEG), in which through the use of special nozzles liquidated "dead" space and is achieved by changing the angle of entry of ultrasound in a wide range.
When observing the dynamics of traumatic brain disease determine the size of the ventricular system (mainly ventricular index value) and the magnitude of pulsation (a percentage of the M-echo-signal). Gain ripple is usually correlated with the increase of intracranial hypertension. Normalization ripple and the size of the ventricular system at echoencephalography (EhoEG) is an indication of a favorable course of traumatic brain disease. The complete absence of pulsation on echoencephalography (EhoEG) is an additional criterion, testifying to stop cerebral blood flow in cases of terminal coma.