Chronic catarrhal gingivitis
Chronic catarrhal gingivitis is an exudative inflammation of the gums. Chronic catarrhal gingivitis develops in patients in response to the pathogenic effect on the gums of microorganisms of dental deposits. It should be noted that Chronic catarrhal gingivitis, as a rule, develops due to insufficient oral hygiene and, without timely, adequate treatment, turns into chronic generalized periodontitis.
Diagnosis and symptoms of chronic catarrhal gingivitis
The clinical picture of chronic catarrhal gingivitis is fairly typical and the establishment of the diagnosis, as a rule, does not cause difficulties. Usually, patients with chronic catarrhal gingivitis complain of slight itching in the gums, bleeding during mechanical irritation (for example, brushing teeth, eating harsh food). From the anamnesis, it is possible to find out that the disease with chronic catarrhal gingivitis began gradually, and was practically asymptomatic for a long time. It should be borne in mind that Chronic catarrhal gingivitis most often develops in children and young people (25-30 years old).
The general condition of the patient with chronic catarrhal gingivitis is not disturbed. Examination of the oral cavity reveals non-mineralized supragingival tooth deposits, chronic mild inflammation of the gums (swelling, bleeding, hyperemia). The absence of clinical pockets is typical for gingivitis. Impaired integrity of the periodontal attachment does not occur in this case. The teeth in chronic catarrhal gingivitis are motionless, not displaced. X-ray examination of changes in the bone tissue of the interdental septa and other parts of the jawbones are not determined.
To diagnose and monitor the effectiveness of the treatment of chronic catarrhal gingivitis, it is usually enough to ask the patient, examine the cavity and gums, indicate and evaluate the "dental" plaque, and conduct the Schiller-Pisarev test.
For differential diagnosis of chronic catarrhal gingivitis from periodontitis, probing of clinical pockets, assessment of tooth mobility, in doubtful cases, an X-ray examination of the alveolar processes of the jaws is shown.
Treatment of chronic catarrhal gingivitis
Treatment of chronic catarrhal gingivitis begins with antiseptic treatment of the oral cavity with antiseptic solutions. To treat the oral cavity, solutions of hydrogen peroxide - 1%, chlorhexidine - 0.06%, furacilin - 0.02% are used. Antiseptics for chronic catarrhal gingivitis are used in the form of oral baths, rinses, applications on the gums.
Then they begin the most important stage of treatment - the removal of dental deposits. In this case, separate groups of teeth are covered with cotton swabs and special tools (hooks, excavators, etc.), carefully remove "tartar" and soft "dental" plaque. Then the surface of the teeth is polished with special brushes with abrasive pastes. After "professional teeth cleaning" the antiseptic treatment of the oral cavity is again carried out. Removal of dental deposits is carried out in 1-2 visits.
A defining component in the treatment and prevention of chronic catarrhal gingivitis is effective oral hygiene. On the first visit, they talk with the patient about the rules for brushing teeth, give recommendations on choosing a toothbrush, toothpaste, and teach them how to use floss. During repeated visits, the effectiveness of hygiene measures is monitored by staining the "dental" plaque.
In the presence of severe inflammation of the gums in chronic catarrhal gingivitis, anti-inflammatory drugs (acetylsalicylic acid, butadione, indomethacin, etc.) and antimicrobial agents are applied. In severe cases, oral administration of metronidazole, lincomycin, and other antibiotics.
A good effect in the treatment of chronic catarrhal gingivitis is given by the appointment of physiotherapeutic procedures, taking into account their therapeutic effect:
- hydromassage of gums (removal of soft plaque and improvement of microcirculation in the gums)
- UV on the gum area (antibacterial effect)
- anode-galvanization or electrophoresis of medicinal substances from the anode (calcium chloride, vitamin B1)
- UHF in an oligothermic dose
- local hypothermia
- helium-neon laser radiation
- plasma flow of argon (anti-inflammatory effect, normalization of trophism and microcirculation)